24 April 2018: Important news update– recent high resolution testing by L0053 of the Jura branch of Group-07 tells a great deal. While the analysis below remains substantially valid, something much more definitive can now be said relative to the connectors on the diagrams that indicate “unconfirmed” relationship. That relationship is much older than first hypothesized. The common ancestor between the Jura and Irish Group-07 Lindsays lived centuries before surnames came to be in use. 15 years after the initial report was written, advances in SNP testing provide new methods to further clarify this unique Group. Formerly believed to be one, they are now two distinct I-M233 Lindsay lineages. Watch this space.
Group 07 moved out impressively in the very early days of the project. The current administrator cannot improve upon the laudatory and appreciative words of his late predecessor Ron Lindsay of San Jose for the surpurb “Interim Report” generated in October 2003 by then Group 07 coordinator Alan Lindsay Berry. These words and the report itself are provided here. A brief commentary by the current administrator will follow after the lineage graphics.
GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH, ANALYSIS & CONCLUSIONS – LINDSAY DNA GROUP 7
October 11, 2003
All of the Lindsay DNA Groups, for the most part, have some form of coordinated genealogical research currently underway, but the Group 7 individuals have written an “interim report” documenting significant findings, in their quest to discover the name of one or more of the Most Recent Common Ancestors (MRCA) that possibly exists within this group of individuals. In the process, the Lindsay DNA Group 7 has set an example of how effective a group of Lindsays can be if they pool all their resources and work as a team.
This results achieved in this “progress report” is the result of one of the best examples of coordination and cooperation between multiple Lindsay/Lindsey genealogical researchers that I have seen in a very long time. Representing this group of Lindsays, Alan Lindsay Berry assumed a leadership role in initiating, documenting and writing the following “progress report” of the findings of this combined group of Lindsays. Alan Berry and his Group 7 researchers should be commended for the manner in which they have conducted and documented their research.
Our thanks again to Alan Lindsay Berry and the Lindsay DNA Group 7 for providing the following interim report and the poem, found at the end of the report, written by an emigrant from the Scottish Isle of Jura.
INTERIM REPORT OF GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH, ANALYSIS & CONCLUSIONS – LINDSAY DNA GROUP 7
by Alan Lindsay Berry , representing Lindsay DNA Group 7
October 9, 2003
The Scottish isle of Jura is believed to be the isle of Hinba, where St. Columba settled briefly before moving on to Iona, his base for converting the Picts and Celtic inhabitants of Scotland to Christianity during the 6th century.(2,3,18,20) The Vikings arrived destroying Iona in 795 AD, and completely conquering the Hebrides by 850 AD. The Vikings ruled the Southern Islands for over 350 years. The Vikings were followed by the McDonalds, Lords of the Isles, who ruled until the coming of the Campbells in 1615. Branches of the Campbell family acquired the Kintyre peninsula in 1607, and purchased nearby Islay in 1615. Control over Jura was slow in coming. Various attempts by the McDonalds and their allies, to maintain control of Jura, were met with defeat, with the Campbells establishing permanent residence on the island in 1665.(2,3,18,20) Jura, Islay, Colonsay, and the surrounding smaller islands have a Celtic/Viking hybrid cultural heritage and DNA mix. The islands remain as always, very isolated from the mainland, with the rulers enjoying considerable independence from the crown of either Norway, or of Scotland. Due to this isolation, our research team has discovered that the history of Scotland is not the same as the history of the southern isles, including Jura.
Six branches of the Lindsays of Jura have shared family tree information, comparing family records with primary source data, including old parish records. These old parish records have proven very significant in our study. Additional members of Lindsay DNA Group 7 have contributed their findings to the research effort, with the goal of defining the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) for some, if not all of Lindsay DNA Group 7. This concentrated research effort between family branches of the Lindsays of Jura and all members of Lindsay DNA Group 7, has involved lines of the Lindsay family in Scotland, Australia, Canada, Ireland, North Carolina, and their descendants spread around the globe.
Lindsay DNA Group 7 participants #L0023 and #L0053 are known first cousins and a perfect match with all 26 DNA markers. The proven Lindsay lineage, of these two DNA participants, will most likely represent the unmutated DNA of the Lindsay lineage of the Isle of Jura, Scotland, and therefore the basic haplotype for Lindsay DNA Group 7.
A seventh cousin of participants #L0023 and #L0053 has been located and has registered for the DNA test. This third member of this proven Lindsay lineage is being tested in order to better qualify the basic haplotype currently assumed for Lindsay DNA Group 7, and to possibly provide additional evidence as to the DNA marker mutation rate for the Lindsays of Jura.
The earliest known ancestor for the Lindsays of Jura is Hugh Lindsay (alias Aodh McCleisich, born in 1677, on the Isle of Jura, and married to Doroty McPhetras of Islay in 1703.(1,3,4) Hugh is an Anglicized version of the Old Irish, Aodh. Pronunciation of the two spellings is almost identical. Hugh’s brothers were Malcome, John, and Neill. Hugh and Doroty’s children were Christina, Duncan, John, Isobel, Archibald, and Mary.(1,3,4) Church records for the period of 1704-1724, include birth records for 10 McCleisich children listed along with their parent’s names.(1,3,4) In subsequent church records, these same individuals are listed as Lindsays.(1)
Previous publications by noted authorities on Jura have overlooked the fact that apparently during this period, the McCleisich family changed their name to Lindsay. Donald Budge believed the Lindsays to be an ancient Jura family.(4) The Lindsay name appears, along with the McCleisich name, in the 1764 “Inventory of Debts” included with the Campbell Papers.(5) This is the last occurrence of the McCleisich surname in any records of Jura. After analyzing the names listed in parish records of the period of 1811 to 1841, Peter Youngson notes, “ the vast majority of the Mc’s have disappeared without a trace.” By this time the Lindsay family is plentiful with 20 baptismal records.(5,3)
Based upon this very strong circumstantial evidence, the disappearance of the McCleisich family coincides with the rapid appearance of the Lindsays, because they are one and the same! This name change occurred during the fifty-year transition in power with the fall of the McDonalds and the coming of the Campbells, 1615 to 1665.(2,18) There was much blood shed during this time, with the McDonalds along with some of their close allies finally leaving the island. Some of the remaining families found it in their best interests to take an Anglican name. Other names were modified from the traditional Gaelic versions to simpler Anglican equivalents, either by the families themselves, or by those keeping the church records.(3)
McCleisich is an obscure name, possibly occurring only on Jura. The nearest equivalent is McCleish, a family name in Kilfinan, located on the mainland approximately 30 miles east of Jura. The earliest records of the families in Kilfinan appear in church records in 1716. It is possible that some members of the McCleisich family shortened the surname rather than changing it to the Anglican Lindsay. Lindsay DNA Group 7 researchers and the descendants of the Lindsays of Jura are investigating the possibility that all of Lindsay DNA Group 7’s ancestors originated with the McCleisich family of Jura.
The Lindsays of Jura operated the ferry transporting cattle from Lagg on Jura, across to Kiells on the Kintyre Peninsula on the mainland.(3,4) Family history indicates that the Lindsays were also involved in trade with Ireland. The Lindsays ferried cattle from nearby Port Askaig on the isle of Islay to Feolin on Jura, where they were driven overland to Lagg before transporting them again by ferry to the mainland.(3,4,11) The first record of Lagg, originally called Camys, or Camus, meaning bay, was in 1496.(2) Numerous members of the Lindsay family, involved in transporting the cattle and later the mail to and from the mainland, lived at Lagg.(11,4) The ferry was a wide beamed sailboat with the cattle fastened with their heads tied to rings on the gunwale on each side of the boat. The drovers and their horses stood in the center. The Jura cattle were a valuable commodity in trade with Ireland and Scotland, with some cattle sold at market and herded on to England, even as far as to London.(3,4) It is not clear whether the ferry from Islay to Jura, and the one from Jura to the mainland, were the same boat, or two. Although sources indicate the Lindsays operated the ferry at both locations, it is unlikely that the same boat would have been used for both the relatively narrow passage and the more open sea. With their involvement in the cattle trade, the Lindsays had more contact with Islay, than would have been common at that time.
In 1739, Donald Lindsay and his wife Mary McQuarrie emigrated with their children, Duncan, Richard, Effie, and Christian, aboard the ship “Thistle,” sailing from Islay to New York.(6) In 1738, 1739, and 1740, an undetermined number of Jura families joined those on Islay emigrating to New York State, where they were promised land grants.(3,6)
Many families left Jura for Greenock, in hope of securing passage to North Carolina. There was also the attraction of work available in the port cities, and on ships involved in the rapidly expanding Atlantic trade. Some who did not obtain passage settled in the area of the Clyde ports, including Glasgow, Greenock, and Ayr.(3,9,18) One branch of the Lindsays made their home in Gourock, a village just outside of Greenock. Ireland was another destination for the Jura emigrants. Many, most likely unrelated Lindsays of the nearby mainland ports, were mariners. Alexander Lindsay’s ship’s rutter (pilot book) of 1540 was referenced for navigation charts for well over 200 years.(19) Numerous Lindsays of later generations would continue the seafaring tradition.(1,3,7) Research into which, if any, of these Lindsays are related to the Lindsays of Jura family is ongoing. There is a strong possibility that mariners of the McCleisich family, assumed the Lindsay surname, which was a common surname among mariners of these port cities.
The recently merged Lindsay DNA Groups 3,4,5, and 8 are a close or exact match to the 6 markers representing the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH) or Modal Haplotype 1.15) a subset of Haplogroup 1 (HG1). This is the haplotype most commonly found along the Atlantic coast of Europe, including the Irish, Welsh, Basque, Flemish, and Bretagne peoples.(12,17) This would be the expected haplotype for the main stream Lindsays of Flemish ancestry. With only one out of six markers matching AMH indicators, Lindsay DNA Group 7 participants are clearly not of the AMH haplotype. Based on the DNA marker analysis, we can also assume that neither are Lindsay DNA Group 7 participants “close” blood relatives of any of the other Lindsay DNA Groups, as indicated by an average of 16 out of 26 mismatches with the DNA markers. Investigating the conclusions drawn from other family DNA studies, we find such results as these are common and to be expected.(13,14,15) Comparison of Lindsay DNA Group 7 DNA makers with those of a group of the MacGregor family DNA project revealed striking similarities. The MacGregor Group comprised of three participants including a MacGregor, a Niven, and a MacAdam, were determined to not be blood relatives of the other MacGregors, and furthermore to not be of the anticipated AMH haplogroup. This group of the MacGregor family DNA study, with its similarities to the Lindsay DNA Group 7, was found to have the markers indicating Norse (Viking) haplogroup 2 (HG2) DNA.(14)
Further analysis of the DNA reveals that Lindsay DNA Group 7 meets the criteria indicative of Haplogroup 2 (HG2), including marker DYS426 = 11.(14,16,17,13) Compared with the indicators for HG2, there are numerous matches. The relevant indicators are identical with all members of Lindsay DNA Group 7. Unlike groups HG1 and HG3, which are from the same branch of the human chromosome tree, HG2 is made up of several very different branches. In 2002, The Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC), based at the University of Arizona, developed a new DNA haplogroup classification system. The main branches are assigned letters, with HG1 now labeled R1b and HG3 now labeled R1a1. HG2 includes members of F,G,I, and J branches of the human Y-chromosome tree. Group 7’s DNA is from the I branch of the tree. Additional analysis will clarify, whether Group 7 should be labeled I, I1, or I1a. Population studies by University College London, as well as a special case study by James Wilson, were recently aired on a BBC special entitled, “Blood of the Vikings.” These studies revealed that 60 to 100% of the male DNA of Norway is Viking, with 60% of Orkney’s and Shetland’s population having the Norse DNA. Over 30% of the DNA of the Hebrides indicated Viking ancestry as well.(16)
Governor Gabriel Johnson’s solution to the ”Highland Problem,” was to encourage settlement in North Carolina. By the time of the American Revolution in 1776, approximately 50,000 Highland Scots had settled in the Cape Fear River Valley, including the portion of Bladen County that would later become Cumberland and Hoke Counties, where the Lindsay emigrants settled.(10) Emigration from Jura to North Carolina began with the Argyll Colony of 1739, continuing until the mid 19th century. Donald Lindsay of Lergybreck, on the Isle of Jura, emigrated to Cumberland County with his wife and three children in 1754.(5) His cousin Mirian Lindsay, with her husband, Duncan McDuffie, and two of their children, Archibald and Isobella, emigrated from Jura to Cumberland County in the early 1740s. In 1838, John Lindsay and his wife, Mary Black, emigrated with their children from Jura to Cumberland County. John Lindsay was joined by his brother and his wife’s sister, Archibald Lindsay and Anne Black, who had married earlier that year.(1,8,21) Ironically, Cumberland County was named for the leader of the army that defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Many of the settlers of Cumberland County were Jacobites and their sympathizers. With the fall of the McDonalds, long time Jura residents found themselves as prisoners on their own land, now under the control of the Campbells.(3) There are no records to indicate that the Campbell Lairds were any better or worse than other landowners; however, there were instances of the abuse of their crofters. A village was leveled in order for Lady Campbell to have a clear view to the seacoast. Another village was burned when the crofters were incorrectly suspected of poaching salmon. The islanders paid high rents for land that had once belonged to their ancestors.(3,4) The prospect of emigration offered the opportunity of new prospects and often free land grants. By the twentieth century Jura’s population that had once been over 1500 had dropped to barely 200 as it remains today. Crofting has been discouraged, with large game reserves established for deer stalking.
Cited Sources of Information:
(1) Jura and Colonsay Parish Records and corroborating research by earlier generations of Lindsay descendants compiled during the 1920s, 30s, and 40s.
(2) “Islay, Jura, & Colonsay, A historical Guide,” by David Caldwell, 2001 Birlinn Ltd. Edinburgh, Scotland
(3) “Jura, Island of Deer,” by Peter Youngson, 2001 Birlinn Ltd. Edinburgh
(4) “Jura, An Island in Argyll,” by Donald Budge, 1960 Smith & Son Ltd, Glasgow
(5) “The Campbell Papers,” at the Scottish Records Office
(6) “A Dictionary of Scottish Emigrants to the USA, by Donald Whyte, 1972 Magna Carta Book Co., Baltimore, Maryland
(7) Cemetery Records for the isle of Jura, Scotland
(8) Cumberland County Estate records, Cumberland County, North Carolina
(9) 1881 Census Records of Scotland
(10) “The Scottish Carmichaels of the Carolinas,” by Roderick L. Carmichael, 1935, Carmichael, Richmond, Virginia
(11) “Memories of the Past,” by Gordon Wright & Norman Tate, Wright, Jura, Scotland
(12) “Genetic Evidence for Different Male & Female Roles During Cultural Transitions in the British Isles,” By James Wilson , Deborah Weiss, Martin Richards, Mark Thomas, Neil Bradman, and David Goldstein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, PNAS Journal, 24 April, 2001, vol. 981 no. 9, 5078-5083
(13) “Molecular Biology & Evolution,” Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution, 19: 1008-1021, published 2002.
(14) MacGregor DNA Project www.clangregor.org/macgregor/dna
(15) “A Genetic Legacy of Homo Sapiens in Extant Europeans – a Y Chromosome Perspective,” Science Journal, 10 Nov. 2000, 290 (5494): 1155-9. Dept. of Genetics & Microbiology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
(16) “Blood of the Vikings,” The BBC September 2003 television program
(17) “A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups,” The Y-Chromosome Consortium at the University of Arizona.
(18) “History of Scotland,” edited by R.A. Houston & W.W.J.Knox, 2001, The Penguin Press in association with the National Museums of Scotland.
(19) “Behind the Monument,” by William Laing, Spring 1999, The Kist, Magazine of Natural History & Antiquarian Society of Mid Argyll.
(20) The Columbia Encyclopaedia, Sixth Edition, 2001.
(21) Cemetery Records for Cumberland & Hoke Counties, N.C.
Farewell to Jura
Poem by Jessie Scott, 1871 emigrant from Jura to North Carolina
No more I’ll climb the mountains high
To view the meeting sea and eye.
The stately vessels passing by
On every side of Jura.
Give honour to the great the brave,
To sordid souls the gold they grave.
Give me a walk at dusky eve
Along the shores of Jura.
How dear to me thy every scene,
When sun shines o’er thy Western main,
Or when he walks and spreads again
His golden beams o’er Jura.
By simple nature’s power impressed
There friendship glows in every breast
The stranger is a welcome guest
At every hearth in Jura.
From Strife of noisy towns secure,
There mortals spend their lives obscure,
And long may harmony endure
Throughout the Isle of Jura.
Though ne’er to tread thy shores again,
My heart with thee shall aye remain
Where’er I wander I’ll retain
My dearest wish for Jura.
The three graphics above depict all but three of the Group-07 population. These recent participants are L0277, L0278, and L0314.
Lindsay Code No.: L0277
Surname of Participant: Lindsey
Earliest Known Progenitor: James E. Lindsey, b.11 Mar 1872 nr Pennsville, Morgan Co, OH, d. 1949 Pullman, WA
Lindsay Code No.: L0278
Surname of Participant: Lindsay
Earliest Known Progenitor: John Lindsay, c.1760-1822. Middle Musquodoboit, Nova Scotia
Lindsay Code No.: L0314
Surname of Participant: Lindsay
Earliest Known Progenitor: David Lindsay, b. abt. 1781 Co. Tyrone (or Armagh) and d. 1875 Halton, ONT
These Hebridean Lindsays are perhaps the purest Scots in the entire study, becoming Lindsays more recently than most, though. They are of a major Y-Haplogroup, I-M233, which is unique within the Project. A book was published in 1884 on the Ulster descendants of an immigrant from the Ayrshire branch of this family. (Lindsay, J.C. and Lindsay, J.A., The Lindsay Memoirs: A record of the Lisnacrieve and Belfast Branch of the Lindsay Family during the last two hundred years. Belfast. William Strain & Sons, 1884). By the time of the writing there was no family memory beyond their remote Ayrshire progenitor whose family likely traced from the Hebrides or the highlands in previous generations because of their former Gaelic surname. Among the notables coming from this family was Australian painter Norman Alfred Williams Lindsay (1879-1969).